What is Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA?
Pure ALOHA The original ALOHA protocol is called pure ALOHA. This is a simple, but elegant protocol. The idea is that each station sends a frame whenever it has a frame to send. However, since there is only one channel to share, there is the possibility of collision between frames from different stations.The pure ALOHA protocol relies on acknowledgments from the receiver. When a station sends a frame, it expects the receiver to send an acknowledgment. If the acknowledgment does not arrive after a time-out period, the station assumes that the frame (or the acknowledgment) has been destroyed and resends the frame. A collision involves two or more stations. If all these stations try to resend their frames after the time-out, the frames will collide again. Pure ALOHA dictates that when the time-out period passes, each station waits a random amount of time before resending its frame. The randomness will help avoid more collisions. We call this time the back-off time TB.Pure ALOHA has a second method to prevent congesting the channel with retransmitted frames. After a maximum number of retransmission attempts Kmax’ a station must give up and try later.
Pure ALOHA has a vulnerable time of 2 x Tfr . This is so because there is no rule that defines when the station can send. A station may send soon after another station has started or soon before another station has finished. Slotted ALOHA was invented to improve the efficiency of pure ALOHA. In slotted ALOHA we divide the time into slots of Tfr s and force the station to send only at the beginning of the time slot.Because a station is allowed to send only at the beginning of the synchronized time slot, if a station misses this moment, it must wait until the beginning of the next time slot. This means that the station which started at the beginning of this slot has already finished sending its frame. Of course, there is still the possibility of collision if two stations try to send at the beginning of the same time slot. However, the vulnerable time is now reduced to one-half, equal to Tfr