What are NP, P, NP-complete and NP-Hard problems?

Posted By on October 27, 2014


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Explain minimax principle with its use
Some terms related to graphs with definition

What are NP, P, NP-complete and NP-Hard problems?
P is set of problems that can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine in Polynomial time.

NP is set of decision problems that can be solved by a Non-deterministic Turing Machine in Polynomial time. P is subset of NP (any problem that can be solved by deterministic machine in polynomial time can also be solved by non-deterministic machine in polynomial time).
Informally, NP is set of decision problems which can be solved by a polynomial time via a “Lucky Algorithm”, a magical algorithm that always makes a right guess among the given set of choices (Source Ref 1).

NP-complete problems are the hardest problems in NP set.  A decision problem L is NP-complete if:
1) L is in NP (Any given solution for NP-complete problems can be verified quickly, but there is no efficient known solution).
2) Every problem in NP is reducible to L in polynomial time (Reduction is defined below).

A problem is NP-Hard if it follows property 2 mentioned above, doesn’t need to follow property 1. Therefore, NP-Complete set is also a subset of NP-Hard set.

NP-CompleteSet

Explain minimax principle with its use
Some terms related to graphs with definition

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Posted by Akash Kurup

Founder and C.E.O, World4Engineers Educationist and Entrepreneur by passion. Orator and blogger by hobby

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