The TCP/IP model

Posted By on August 31, 2014

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OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model
Frame Relay

TCP/IP is based on a four-layer reference model. All protocols that belong to the TCP/IP protocol suite are located in the top three layers of this model.

As shown in the following illustration, each layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to one or more layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model proposed by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

OSI layer model and TCP/IP model

The types of services performed and protocols used at each layer within the TCP/IP model are described in more detail in the following table.

Layer Description Protocols
Application Defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network. HTTP, Telnet, FTP, TFTP, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, X Windows, other application protocols
Transport Provides communication session management between host computers. Defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data. TCP, UDP, RTP
Internet Packages data into IP datagrams, which contain source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagrams between hosts and across networks. Performs routing of IP datagrams. IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP
Network interface Specifies details of how data is physically sent through the network, including how bits are electrically signaled by hardware devices that interface directly with a network medium, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber, or twisted-pair copper wire. Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay, RS-232, v.35
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model
Frame Relay

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Posted by Akash Kurup

Founder and C.E.O, World4Engineers Educationist and Entrepreneur by passion. Orator and blogger by hobby