Project Planning Process
The project planning process involves a set of interrelated activities followed in an orderly manner to implement user requirements in software and includes the description of a series of project planning activities and individual(s) responsible for performing these activities. In addition, the project planning process comprises the following.
- Objectives and scope of the project
- Techniques used to perform project planning
- Effort (in time) of individuals involved in project
- Project schedule and milestones
- Resources required for the project
- Risks associated with the project.
Project planning process comprises several activities, which are essential for carrying out a project systematically. These activities refer to the series of tasks performed over a period of time for developing the software. These activities include estimation of time, effort, and resources required and risks associated with the project.
Project planning process consists of the following activities.
- Identification of project requirements: Before starting a project, it is essential to identify the project requirements as identification of project requirements helps in performing the activities in a systematic manner. These requirements comprise information such as project scope, data and functionality required in the software, and roles of the project management team members.
- Identification of cost estimates: Along with the estimation of effort and time, it is necessary to estimate the cost that is to be incurred on a project. The cost estimation includes the cost of hardware, network connections, and the cost required for the maintenance of hardware components. In addition, cost is estimated for the individuals involved in the project.
- Identification of risks: Risks are unexpected events that have an adverse effect on the project. Software project involves several risks (like technical risks and business risks) that affect the project schedule and increase the cost of the project. Identifying risks before a project begins helps in understanding their probable extent of impact on the project.
- Identification of critical success factors: For making a project successful, critical success factors are followed. These factors refer to the conditions that ensure greater chances of success of a project. Generally, these factors include support from management, appropriate budget, appropriate schedule, and skilled software engineers.
- Preparation of project charter: A project charter provides a brief description of the project scope, quality, time, cost, and resource constraints as described during project planning. It is prepared by the management for approval from the sponsor of the project.
- Preparation of project plan: A project plan provides information about the resources that are available for the project, individuals involved in the project, and the schedule according to which the project is to be carried out.
- Commencement of the project: Once the project planning is complete and resources are assigned to team members, the software project commences.
Once the project objectives and business objectives are determined, the project end date is fixed. The project management team prepares the project plan and schedule according to the end date of the project. After analyzing the project plan, the project manager communicates the project plan and end date to the senior management. The progress of the project is reported to the management from time to time. Similarly, when the project is complete, senior management is informed about it. In case of delay in completing the project, the project plan is re-analyzed and corrective actions are taken to complete the project. The project is tracked regularly and when the project plan is modified, the senior management is informed.