Photovoltaic cell/Solar cell

Posted By on September 20, 2014

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Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of light into electricity at the atomic level. Some materials exhibit a property known as the photoelectric effect that causes them to absorb photons of light and release electrons. When these free electrons are captured, an electric current results that can be used as electricity.

The photoelectric effect was first noted by a French physicist, Edmund Bequerel, in 1839, who found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and the photoelectric effect on which photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later won a Nobel prize in physics. The first photovoltaic module was built by Bell Laboratories in 1954. It was billed as a solar battery and was mostly just a curiosity as it was too expensive to gain widespread use. In the 1960s, the space industry began to make the first serious use of the technology to provide power aboard spacecraft. Through the space programs, the technology advanced, its reliability was established, and the cost began to decline. During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained recognition as a source of power for non-space applications.

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The diagram above illustrates the operation of a basic photovoltaic cell, also called a solar cell. Solar cells are made of the same kinds of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, used in the microelectronics industry. For solar cells, a thin semiconductor wafer is specially treated to form an electric field, positive on one side and negative on the other. When light energy strikes the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current — that is, electricity. This electricity can then be used to power a load, such as a light or a tool.

A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a support structure or frame is called a photovoltaic module. Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage, such as a common 12 volts system. The current produced is directly dependent on how much light strikes the module.

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Multiple modules can be wired together to form an array. In general, the larger the area of a module or array, the more electricity that will be produced. Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct-current (dc) electricity. They can be connected in both series and parallel electrical arrangements to produce any required voltage and current combination.

see captionToday’s most common PV devices use a single junction, or interface, to create an electric field within a semiconductor such as a PV cell. In a single-junction PV cell, only photons whose energy is equal to or greater than the band gap of the cell material can free an electron for an electric circuit. In other words, the photovoltaic response of single-junction cells is limited to the portion of the sun’s spectrum whose energy is above the band gap of the absorbing material, and lower-energy photons are not used.

One way to get around this limitation is to use two (or more) different cells, with more than one band gap and more than one junction, to generate a voltage. These are referred to as “multijunction” cells (also called “cascade” or “tandem” cells). Multijunction devices can achieve a higher total conversion efficiency because they can convert more of the energy spectrum of light to electricity.

As shown below, a multijunction device is a stack of individual single-junction cells in descending order of band gap (Eg). The top cell captures the high-energy photons and passes the rest of the photons on to be absorbed by lower-band-gap cells.

see captionMuch of today’s research in multijunction cells focuses on gallium arsenide as one (or all) of the component cells. Such cells have reached efficiencies of around 35% under concentrated sunlight. Other materials studied for multijunction devices have been amorphous silicon and copper indium diselenide.

As an example, the multijunction device below uses a top cell of gallium indium phosphide, “a tunnel junction,” to aid the flow of electrons between the cells, and a bottom cell of gallium arsenide.






Advantages of solar PV – in a nutshell

  • PV panels provide clean – green energy. During electricity generation with PV panels there is no harmful greenhouse gas emissions thus solar PV is environmentally friendly.
  • Solar energy is energy supplied by nature – it is thus free and abundant!
  • Solar energy can be made available almost anywhere there is sunlight
  • Solar energy is especially appropriate for smart energy networks with distributed power generation – DPG is indeed the next generation power network structure!
  • Solar Panels cost is currently on a fast reducing track and is expected to continue reducing for the next years – consequently solar PV panels has indeed a highly promising future both for economical viability and environmental sustainability.
  • Photovoltaic panels, through photoelectric phenomenon, produce electricity in a direct electricity generation way
  • Operating and maintenance costs for PV panels are considered to be low, almost negligible, compared to costs of other renewable energy systems
  • PV panels have no mechanically moving parts, except in cases of –sun-tracking mechanical bases; consequently they have far less breakages or require less maintenance than other renewable energy systems (e.g. wind turbines)
  • PV panels are totally silent, producing no noise at all; consequently, they are a perfect solution for urban areas and for residential applications (see solar panels for home)
  • Because solar energy coincides with energy needs for cooling PV panels can provide an effective solution to energy demand peaks – especially in hot summer months where energy demand is high.
  • Though solar energy panels’ prices have seen a drastic reduction in the past years, and are still falling, nonetheless, solar photovoltaic panels are one of major renewable energy systems that are promoted through government subsidy funding (FITs, tax credits etc.); thus financial incentive for PV panels make solar energy panels an attractive investment alternative.
  • Residential solar panels are easy to install on rooftops or on the ground without any interference to residential lifestyle.

Disadvantages of Solar PV – in a nutshell

  • As in all renewable energy sources, solar energy has intermittency issues; not shining at night but also during daytime there may be cloudy or rainy weather.
  • Consequently, intermittency and unpredictability of solar energy makes solar energy panels less reliable a solution.
  • Solar energy panels require additional equipment (inverters) to convert direct electricity (DC) to alternating electricity (AC) in order to be used on the power network.
  • For a continuous supply of electric power, especially for on-grid connections, Photovoltaic panels require not only Inverters but also storage batteries; thus increasing the investment cost for PV panels considerably
  • In case of land-mounted PV panel installations, they require relatively large areas for deployment; usually the land space is committed for this purpose for a period of 15-20 years – or even longer.
  • Solar panels efficiency levels are relatively low (between 14%-25%) compared to the efficiency levels of other renewable energy systems.
  • Though PV panels have no considerable maintenance or operating costs, they are fragile and can be damaged relatively easily; additional insurance costs are therefore of ultimate importance to safeguard a PV investment.


Examples of some applications of photovoltaics are the following:


Water-pumping installations (very important in developing Countries): systems of automatic irrigation.

Industry, Telecommunications & Public Services

Cathode protection of gas, oil pipelines and other types of piping; provision of power in general, in particular for limited electric charges (in the order of a few kW) always in areas far from the grid or where power is unreliable (discontinuous electrical supply).

Radio/television relay stations: telephone devices; stations for data surveying and transmission (meteorological, seismic, for levels of watercourses, indicating the presence of fires), often very useful for civil protection services.

Lighting of streets, gardens and public transportation stops; street signalling.


Especially for refrigeration, very useful particularly in developing countries for the conservation of vaccines and blood.


Power provision (especially lighting) for houses and mountain refuges. Very significant applications of this type in developing countries: photovoltaic systems do not require special maintenance and are easy to install.

Free Time

For charging boat and camper batteries.

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Posted by Akash Kurup

Founder and C.E.O, World4Engineers Educationist and Entrepreneur by passion. Orator and blogger by hobby