# HYBRID EQUIVALENT FOR CE TRANSISTOR

Posted By on December 19, 2014

The figure shows the transistor connected in common emitter configuration and the figure also shows the hybrid equivalent circuit of such a transistor.

In common emitter transistor configuration, the input signal is applied between the base and emitter terminals of the transistor and output appears between the collector and emitter terminals. The input voltage (Vbe) and the output current (ic) are given by the following equations:

Vbe = hie.ib + hre.Vc

ie = hfe.ib + hoe.Vc

## Hybrid expression

Expression can be obtained from the general hybrid formulas derived in this article HYBRID EQUIVALENT OF TRANSISTOR by adding a second subscript letter ‘e’ (which stands for common emitter) with the h-parameters and are as discussed below.

## Current Gain

It is given by the relation,

Ai = -(hfe/(1 + hoe.rL))

Where rL is the A.C load resistance. Its value is equal to the parallel combination of resistance Rc and RL. Since hfe of a transistor is a positive number, therefore Ai of a common emitter amplifier is negative.

## Input Resistance

The resistance looking into the amplifier input terminals (i.e. base of a transistor) is given by the relation,

Ri = hie + hre.Ai.rL = hie – ((hre.hfe)/(hoe + (1/rL)))

The input resistance of the amplifier stage (called stage input resistance Ris) depends upon the biasing arrangement. For a fixed bias circuit, the stage input resistance is,

Ris = Ri//RB

If the circuit has no biasing resistances, then Ris = Ri.

## Voltage Gain

It is given by the relation,

Av = Ai.r1/Ri

Since the current gain (Ai) of a common emitter amplifier is negative, therefore the voltage gain (Av) is also negative. It means that there is a phase difference of 180o between the input and output. In other words, the input signal is inverted at the output of a common emitter amplifier. The voltage gain, in terms of h-parameters, is given by the relation.

Av = hfe.r1/(hie + ∆h.rL)

Where

∆h = hie.hoe – hre.hfe

## Output Resistance

The resistance looking into the amplifier output terminals is given by the relation,

Ro = (Rs + hie)/(Rs.hoe + ∆h)

Where

Rs = Resistance of the source, and

∆h = hie.hoe – hre.hfe

The output resistance of the stage,

Roe = Ro // rL

Overall Voltage Gain

It is given by the relation,

Av = (Av.Ris)/(Rs + Ris)

Overall Current Gain

It is given by relation,

Aie = Ai.Rs/(Rs + Ris)

#### Posted by Akash Kurup

Founder and C.E.O, World4Engineers Educationist and Entrepreneur by passion. Orator and blogger by hobby

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