In Hierarchical routing, routers are classified into groups called regions. Each router knows about the routers of its own region but has no information about the outside routers.
If A wants to send packets to any router in region 2 (D, E, F or G), it sends them to B, and so on. As you can see, in this type of routing, the tables can be summarized, so network efficiency improves. The above example shows two-level hierarchical routing. We can also use three- or four-level hierarchical routing.
In three-level hierarchical routing, the network is classified into a number of clusters. Each cluster is made up of a number of regions, and each region contains a number or routers. Hierarchical routing is widely used in Internet routing and makes use of several routing protocols.