functions of different layers of OSI model
The following describes the seven layers as defined by the OSI model, shown in the order they occur whenever a user transmits information.
- Layer 7: Application
- This layer supports the application and end-user processes. Within this layer, user privacy is considered and communication partners, service and constraints are all identified. File transfers, email, Telnet and FTP applications are all provided within this layer.
- Layer 6: Presentation (Syntax)
- Within this layer, information is translated back and forth between application and network formats. This translation transforms the information into data the application layer and network recognize regardless of encryption and formatting.
- Layer 5: Session
- Within this layer, connections between applications are made, managed and terminated as needed to allow for data exchanges between applications at each end of a dialogue.
- Layer 4: Transport
- Complete data transfer is ensured as information is transferred transparently between systems in this layer. The transport layer also assures appropriate flow control and end-to-end error recovery.
- Layer 3: Network
- Using switching and routing technologies, this layer is responsible for creating virtual circuits to transmit information from node to node. Other functions include routing, forwarding, addressing, internetworking, error and congestion control, and packet sequencing.
- Layer 2: Data Link
- Information in data packets are encoded and decoded into bits within this layer. Errors from the physical layer flow control and frame synchronization are corrected here utilizing transmission protocol knowledge and management. This layer consists of two sub layers: the Media Access Control (MAC) layer, which controls the way networked computers gain access to data and transmit it, and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer, which controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
- Layer 1: Physical
- This layer enables hardware to send and receive data over a carrier such as cabling, a card or other physical means. It conveys the bitstream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are all protocols with physical layer components.