# Soft Computing

## The back-propagation Algorithm – a mathematical approach

Units are connected to one another. Connections correspond to the edges of the underlying directed graph. There is a real number associated with each connection, which is called the...

## Applications of neural networks

Neural Networks in Practice Given this description of neural networks and how they work, what real world applications are they suited for? Neural networks have broad applicability to real...

## The Back-Propagation Algorithm

In order to train a neural network to perform some task, we must adjust the weights of each unit in such a way that the error between the desired...

## Transfer Function

The behaviour of an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) depends on both the weights and the input-output function (transfer function) that is specified for the units. This function typically falls...

## The Learning Process

The memorisation of patterns and the subsequent response of the network can be categorised into two general paradigms: associative mapping in which the network learns to produce a particular...

## Architecture of neural networks

Feed-forward networks Feed-forward ANNs (figure 1) allow signals to travel one way only; from input to output. There is no feedback (loops) i.e. the output of any layer does...

## Artificial Neuron and Biological Neuron

Biological Neuron:- Much is still unknown about how the brain trains itself to process information, so theories abound. In the human brain, a typical neuron collects signals from others...

## Neural networks versus conventional computers

Neural networks take a different approach to problem solving than that of conventional computers. Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach i.e. the computer follows a set of instructions in...

## Uses of Neural Networks

Neural networks, with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be...

## Introduction to Neural Networks

Neural networks have a large appeal to many researchers due to their great closeness to the structure of the brain, a characteristic not shared by more traditional systems. In...