Digital Electronics

Emitter-coupled logic (ECL)

Emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is one of the many bipolar logic families commercially available. ECL achieves the fastest possible switching times in circuits today by operating in active mode instead...

TTL NAND and AND gates

Suppose we altered our basic open-collector inverter circuit, adding a second input terminal just like the first: This schematic illustrates a real circuit, but it isn’t called a “two-input...

De-Morgan`s Theorem

The two theorems suggested by De-Morgan which are extremely useful in Boolean Algebra are as following. Theorem 1 The left hand side (LHS) of this theorem represents a NAND...

Karnaugh map or K Map

Karnaugh-map or K-map The Boolean theorems and De-Morgan’s theorems are useful in manipulating the logic expression. We can realize the logical expression using gates. The no. of logic gates...

Applications of Counters

Application of the counters Frequency counters Digital clock Time measurement A to D converter Frequency divider circuits Digital triangular wave generator

Synchronous counter

Synchronous counters If the “clock” pulses are applied to all the flip-flops in a counter simultaneously, then such a counter is called as synchronous counter. 2-bit Synchronous up counter...

Asynchronous or Ripple Counter

Asynchronous or ripple counters The logic diagram of a 2-bit ripple up counter is shown in figure. The toggle(T) flip-flop are being used. But we can use the JK...

Toggle Flip Flop / T Flip Flop

Toggle Flip Flop / T Flip Flop Toggle flip flop is basically a JK flip flop with J and K terminals permanently connected together. It has only input denoted...

Delay Flip Flop / D Flip Flop

Delay Flip Flop / D Flip Flop Delay Flip Flop or D Flip Flop is the simple gated S-R latch with a NAND inverter connected between S and R...

Master Slave JK Flip Flop

Master Slave JK Flip Flop Master slave JK FF is a cascade of two S-R FF with feedback from the output of second to input of first. Master is...