# Digital Electronics

## Emitter-coupled logic (ECL)

Emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is one of the many bipolar logic families commercially available. ECL achieves the fastest possible switching times in circuits today by operating in active mode instead...

## TTL NAND and AND gates

Suppose we altered our basic open-collector inverter circuit, adding a second input terminal just like the first: This schematic illustrates a real circuit, but it isn’t called a “two-input...

## De-Morgan`s Theorem

The two theorems suggested by De-Morgan which are extremely useful in Boolean Algebra are as following. Theorem 1 The left hand side (LHS) of this theorem represents a NAND...

## Karnaugh map or K Map

Karnaugh-map or K-map The Boolean theorems and De-Morgan’s theorems are useful in manipulating the logic expression. We can realize the logical expression using gates. The no. of logic gates...

## Applications of Counters

Application of the counters Frequency counters Digital clock Time measurement A to D converter Frequency divider circuits Digital triangular wave generator

## Synchronous counter

Synchronous counters If the “clock” pulses are applied to all the flip-flops in a counter simultaneously, then such a counter is called as synchronous counter. 2-bit Synchronous up counter...

## Asynchronous or Ripple Counter

Asynchronous or ripple counters The logic diagram of a 2-bit ripple up counter is shown in figure. The toggle(T) flip-flop are being used. But we can use the JK...

## Toggle Flip Flop / T Flip Flop

Toggle Flip Flop / T Flip Flop Toggle flip flop is basically a JK flip flop with J and K terminals permanently connected together. It has only input denoted...

## Delay Flip Flop / D Flip Flop

Delay Flip Flop / D Flip Flop Delay Flip Flop or D Flip Flop is the simple gated S-R latch with a NAND inverter connected between S and R...

## Master Slave JK Flip Flop

Master Slave JK Flip Flop Master slave JK FF is a cascade of two S-R FF with feedback from the output of second to input of first. Master is...