Computer Networks

E-mail: Message Format

Message format The Internet email message format is now defined by RFC 5322, with multi-media content attachments being defined in RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called Multipurpose Internet...

E-mail: User Agent

A mail user agent (MUA) is a program that allows you to receive and send e-mail messages; it’s usually just called an e-mail program. To use an MUA such...

WWW:Architecture Overview

WWW stands for World Wide Web. A technical definition of the World Wide Web is : all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext...

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is a generic, stateless, object-oriented protocol which...

Flooding – A simple routing algorithm

Flooding is a simple routing algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent to every outgoing line except on which it  arrived on. Sequence number keeps the flooding in...

Hierarchical Routing

In Hierarchical routing, routers are classified into groups called regions. Each router knows about the routers of its own region but has no information about the outside routers. If...

Fragmentation

Each network has maximum transmission unit(MTU), the size of the largest packet that a network can transmit. The packet larger than MTU is divided into smaller packets. Fragmentation is...

Built in HTTP request methods

The set of common methods for HTTP/1.1 is defined below and this set can be expanded based on requirement. These method names are case sensitive and they must be...

What is Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA?

Pure ALOHA The original ALOHA protocol is called pure ALOHA. This is a simple, but elegant protocol. The idea is that each station sends a frame whenever it has...

Functions of Media Access Control sub layer

the primary functions performed by the MAC layer are: Frame delimiting and recognition Addressing of destination stations (both as individual stations and as groups of stations) Conveyance of source-station...