|A variation of the base-collector voltage results in a variation of the quasi-neutral width in the base. The gradient of the minority-carrier density in the base therefore changes, yielding an increased collector current as the collector-base current is increased. This effect is referred to as the Early effect. The Early effect is observed as an increase in the collector current with increasing collector-emitter voltage as illustrated with Figure . The Early voltage, VA, is obtained by drawing a line tangential to the transistor I–V characteristic at the point of interest. The Early voltage equals the horizontal distance between the point chosen on the I–V characteristics and the intersection between the tangential line and the horizontal axis. It is indicated on the figure by the horizontal arrow.