3 Terminal IC based Voltage Regulator
Block Diagram of 3 Terminal IC based Voltage Regulator
We have given below the block diagram of a 3 terminal IC based voltage regulator.
Fixed Voltage Regulators
These regulators provide a constant output voltage. A popular example is the 7805 IC which provides a constant 5 volts output. A fixed voltage regulator can be a positive voltage regulator or a negative voltage regulator. A positive voltage regulator provides with constant positive output voltage. All those IC’s in the 78XX series are fixed positive voltage regulators. In the IC nomenclature – 78XX ; the part XX denotes the regulated output voltage the IC is designed for. Examples:- 7805, 7806, 7809 etc.
A negative fixed voltage regulator is same as the positive fixed voltage regulator in design, construction & operation. The only difference is in the polarity of output voltages. These IC’s are designed to provide a negative output voltage. Example:- 7905, 7906 and all those IC’s in the 79XX series.
Adjustable Voltage Regulator
An adjustable voltage regulator is a kind of regulator whose regulated output voltage can be varied over a range. There are two variations of the same; known as positive adjustable voltage regulator and negative adjustable regulator. LM317 is a classic example of positive adjustable voltage regulator, whose output voltage can be varied over a range of 1.2 volts to 57 volts. LM337 is an example of negative adjustable voltage regulator. LM337 is actually a complement of LM317 which are similar in operation & design; with the only difference being polarity of regulated output voltage.
There may be certain conditions where a variable voltage may be required. Right now we shall discuss how an LM317 adjustable positive voltage regulator IC is connected. The connection diagram is shown below.
The resistors R1 and R2 determine the output voltage Vout. The resistor R2 is adjusted to get the output voltage range between 1.2 volts to 57 volts. The output voltage that is required can be calculated using the equation:
Vout = Vref (1+R2/R1) + Iadj R2
In this circuit, the value of Vref is the reference voltage between the adjustment terminals and the output taken as 1.25 Volt.
The value of Iadj will be very small and will also have a constant value. Thus the above equation can be rewritten as
Vout = 1.25 (1+R2/R1)
In the above equation, due to the small value of Iadj, the drop due to R2 is neglected.
The load regulation is 0.1 percent while the line regulation is 0.01 percent per volt. This means that the output voltage varies only 0.01 percent for each volt of input voltage. The ripple rejection is 80 db, equivalent to 10,000.
The LM 337 series of adjustable voltage regulators is a complement to the LM 317 series devices. The negative adjustable voltage regulators are available in the same voltage and current options as the LM 317 devices.